The Iceberg Model
The Iceberg Model is an awesome visual and analogy that helps you visualize and uncover the underlying causes of the events we see (the portion of the iceberg above the surface).
The analogy works because there is always an unseen portion of an iceberg that lies below the surface and with events, there are values, structures, and patterns that lead to the event.
Once you uncover the underlying structures, you can start to leverage those to transform and design outcomes or prevent unwanted outcomes. You can use high value and high leverage concepts like the beliefs and values of your organization to create desired and positive outcomes.